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Etiologi multiple sclerosis

Luciana Parente Costa Seguro, Sandra Gofinet Pasoto, in Infection and Autoimmunity (Second Edition), 2015. 6.1 Multiple Sclerosis. The etiology of multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, is still unknown, but some risk factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, including an association of genetic susceptibility and environmental agents Different HLA associations are reported within ethnic groups and some associations remain very stable in patients with MS. It is confirmed that MHC molecules may contribute to genetic susceptibility to the disease. DR2, DR(1*1501), DQ(1*602), DQA102 and the DW2 haplotype are frequently associated with multiple sclerosis. Viral Cause

Etiology of Multiple Sclerosis - an overview

  1. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking the myelin sheath, or the protective protein coat around nerve fibers. This results in.
  2. Etiologi Multiple sclerosis. MS adalah kondisi autoimun, yang berarti sistem kekebalan tubuh telah salah menyerang bagian tubuh yang sehat. Sel-sel sehat dianggap sebagai musuh yang harus diserang dan ditundukkan. Dalam kasus MS, serangan itu menyerang selubung mielin di otak dan / atau sumsum tulang belakang. Inilah lapisan yang mengelilingi.
  3. Studies in the Orkney and Shetland Islands have demonstrated the highest rates of multiple sclerosis (MS) recorded. Accumulated evidence suggests that an environmental factor is paramount in etiology. The role of an environmental exposure (infectious or toxic) is confirmed in this study by the demonstration in Orkney of clustering of cases in time and space
  4. Lauren B. Krupp, MD: The underlying biology of MS [multiple sclerosis] is both fascinating and complex. It's a real interaction between genetic factors and environmental factors. This is an immune-mediated condition where, probably, the events that lead to the development of MS biologically occur within the first decade of life
  5. Thompson AJ, Banwell BL, Barkhof F, Carroll WM, Coetzee T, et al. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet Neurol. 2018 Feb. 17 (2):162-173.. Poser CM, Paty.

Multiple Sclerosis: Etiolog

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body.Eventually, the disease can cause permanent damage or deterioration of the nerves Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Primary Progresssiv Multiple Sclerosis Secondary Progressiv Multiple Sclerosis Benign Multiple Sclerosis Etiologi Destruksi myelin, lemak dan material protein yang menutupi lapisan saraf tertentu dalam otak dan medulla spinalis. Lapisan mengakibatkan gangguan transmisisi impuls sara

Multiple sclerosis remains something of a mystery, even with the multitudes of medical advancements in the field. It is known that the mechanism of this disease is to attack the myelin surrounding nerve fibers and to disrupt communication between the brain and the body, but the actual cause of this disease is still unknown The etiology of multiple sclerosis is believed to be: a. a viral infection of the central nervous system. b. an autoimmune disorder mediated by myelin-reactive lymphocytes. c. a primary neurodegenerative disorder. d. a toxic encephalopathy. 2. The mechanism of action of disease modifying therapies currently used to reduce MS relapse rates is: a 1. Ital J Neurol Sci. 1984 Dec;5(4):347-56. A review of the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Vella V. The geographic distribution of multiple sclerosis and the influence of migration on the risk of contracting it point to an environmental factor as cause of the disease

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory neurological disease of the central nervous system (CNS). 1, 2 MS attacks the myelinated axons in the CNS, destroying the myelin and the axons to varying degrees. 3, 4. The course of MS is highly varied and unpredictable Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with an autoimmune role its pathogenesis. It involves degeneration of the myelin sheath, scarring and/or plaque formation and the eventual loss of axons in both the white and gray matter (McCance & Huether, 2014) Multiple Sclerosis atau Multipel Sklerosis (MS) adalah kelainan neurodegeneratif progresif, yang juga dapat melemahkan, dimana disebabkan oleh rusaknya sistem imun tubuh dan selubung myelin --penutup isolasi semua neuron-- pada sistem saraf pusat (SSP) sehingga menjadi rusak akibat peradanga

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease with profound heterogeneity in clinical course, neuroradiological appearance of the lesions, involvement of susceptibility gene loci, and response to therapy Etiologi pasti multiple sclerosis belum diketahui. Hipotesis yang paling banyak dikemukakan adalah etiologi autoimun yang hanya menyerang sistem saraf pusat dan tidak mengenai sistem saraf perifer. Beberapa faktor disebutkan berperan dalam multiple sclerosis seperti genetik, defisiensi vitamin D, tempat tinggal jauh dari zona khatulistiwa. Mutiple sklerosis merupakan penyakit berat yang secara medis obatnya sampai detik ini belum ditemukan dan sampai sekarang belum ada orang yang sembuh 100 %. Multiple sclerosis memang merupakan penyakit yang terasa atau kelihatan cukup aneh, bukan saja bagi orang lain tetapi juga bagi penderitanya sendiri Kasus multiple sclerosis lebih sering terjadi di negara-negara yang jauh dari zona khatulistiwa. [1,2] Global. Berdasarkan survei oleh Multiple Sclerosis International Federation (MSIF) secara global diperkirakan ada 2,3 juta orang di dunia yang menderita multiple sclerosis pada tahun 2013

Multiple Sclerosis adalah penyakit degeneratif system syaraf pusat (ssp) kronis yang meliputi kerusakan myelin (material lemak dan protein ).Multiple sclerosis secara umum dianggap sebagai auto imun dimana system imun tubuh sendiri yang normalnya bertanggung jawab untuk mempertahankan tubuh terhadap terhadap virus dan bakteri, CiteScore: 2.55 ℹ CiteScore: 2019: 2.550 CiteScore measures the average citations received per document published in this title. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a given year (e.g. 2015) to documents published in three previous calendar years (e.g. 2012 - 14), divided by the number of documents in these three previous years (e.g. 2012 - 14) Instead, a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis often relies on ruling out other conditions that might produce similar signs and symptoms, known as a differential diagnosis. Your doctor is likely to start with a thorough medical history and examination. Multiple sclerosis research laboratory at Mayo Clinic

Multiple Sclerosis Overview Etiology of MS MS News Toda

Learn about your options for treating multiple sclerosis (MS), including different types of disease-modifying drugs, various therapies, and lifestyle changes DocDoc is Asia's leading patient empowerment company. We are the patients' trusted medical advisor. With a network of more than 23,000 doctors under contract and extensive proprietary data on outcome, price, and experience, we help patients find the highest quality care for their unique medical needs

Etiologi Multiple Sclerosis: Faktor Risiko Dan Penyebab M

The etiology of multiple sclerosis Neurolog

  1. Mutiple sclerosis merupakan penyakit berat yang secara medis obatnya sampai detik ini belum ditemukan dan sampai sekarang belum ada orang yang sembuh 100 %. Multiple sclerosis memang merupakan penyakit yang terasa atau kelihatan cukup aneh, bukan saja bagi orang lain tetapi juga bagi penderitanya sendiri
  2. Multiple sclerosis; Hemophilia inheritance. In the most common types of hemophilia, the faulty gene is located on the X chromosome. Everyone has two sex chromosomes, one from each parent. A female inherits an X chromosome from her mother and an X chromosome from her father
  3. gs, in Vita
  4. O Scribd é o maior site social de leitura e publicação do mundo
  5. S 16 Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 115 (Suppl.) (1993) S 16- -$23 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All fights reserved 0022-510X/93/$06.00 JNS 04011 Multiple sclerosis: does epidemiology contribute to providing etiological clues
  6. The results obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the disease course (OR for relapsing-remitting MS = 2.36, % 95 CI = 1.14-5.53, P = 0.46), the expanded disability status.

[Multiple sclerosis: clinical and pathological study of a case] etiologi c. an d diagnosti c significanc e . o f. Multiple sclerosis: a quantitive and qualitative study of immunoglobu-lin. NICE: multiple sclerosis in adults; Treatment for MS relapses. Contact your specialist MS nurse or GP if you think you're having a relapse. A flare-up of symptoms can sometimes be caused by something other than a relapse, such as an infection, so your nurse or GP needs to check for other possible causes

The Etiology of Multiple Sclerosis - Neurology Liv

Multiple sclerosis memiliki kondisi yang sangat variabel dan gejala-gejalanya bergantung pada area sistem syaraf pusat yang terserang. Tidak ada pola khusus pada MS dan setiap penderita MS memiliki kekhasan gejalanya sendiri-sendiri, yang bentuknya dari waktu ke waktu bervariasi dan tingkat keparahan serta jangka waktunya pun dapat berubah, dan semua variasi dan perubahan itu dapat terjadi. hari menurunkan resiko penyakit multiple sclerosis sebanyak 41%. 5. Vitamin D dan Gangguan Neurologis Korelasi evidensi (minimal) antara status vitamin D rendah dengan risiko autis ditemukan oleh peneliti. Diet yang difortifikasi vitamin D 3 dapat menurunkan risiko penyakit Alzheimer, depresi serta gangguan neurokognitif

Epilepsy by the Numbers: Epilepsy Deaths by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender in the United States Significantly Increased from 2005 to 2014 Epilepsy Surgery in the Underserved Hispanic Population Improves Depression, Anxiety and Quality of Lif Bone metastases are tumors that occur when cancer cells break away from the place where they started growing and move into bone tissue. Bone metastases are considered a form of advanced cancer sent a cluster in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). This is based on the observations that these symptoms are common, often co-occur, and possibly synergistic in individuals with MS.10e14 These symptoms might be etiologi-cally linked through inflammatory processes (i.e., cytokine-induced manifestations of sick-ness behavior15) and common. ASKEP MULTIPLE SKLEROSIS A. DEFINISI Multiple sclerosis (MS) merupakan keadaan kronis, penyakit degeneratif dikarakteristikkan oleh adanya bercak kecil demielinasi pada otak dan medulla spinalis. Demielinasi menunjukkan kerusakan myelin yaklni adanya material lunak dan protein disekitar serabut-serabut saraf otak. Myelin adl

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4. Progressive-relapsing Multiple sclerosis (PRMS) Tipe ini jarang terjadi pasien multipel sklerosis, hanya sekitar 5 persen kejadian. ETIOLOGI. Penyebab terjadi multipel sklerosis masih belum diketahui secara pasti. Namun, para ilmuwan memperkirakan bahwa terdapat beberapa faktor penyebab terjadinya multipel sklerosis Esclerosis Múltiple Instituto Nacional de Trastornos Neurológicos y Accidentes Cerebrovasculares Institutos Nacionales de Salud Esperanza en la Investigació Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects plasma cells. Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell found in bone marrow, which is the soft tissue inside most of your bones that produces. C. Etiologi. Multiple Sklerosis terjadi karena adanya kerusakan myelin dan neurotransmitter akibat akumulasi sel darah putih dan cairan darah pada medulla spinalis. Luar lesi berbeda-beda mulai sebesar tusukan jarum sampai diameter melebihi 1 cm. pada pemeriksaan mikroskopis daerah-daerah degenerasi memperlihatkan demyelinisasi dini pada. Definisi , etiologi dan kriteria autoimun Multiple sclerosis Otak dan spinal cord Seluruh sel syaraf rusak. Akibatnya, sel tidak bisa meneruskan sinyal syaraf seperti biasanya. Gejala :kelemahan, sensasi abnormal, kegamangan, masalah dengan pandangan, kekejangan otot, dan sukar menahan BAB Gejala berubah-ubah tentang waktu dan mungkin.

Pathophysiology and Etiology Potential exacerbating and etiologic factors for anorexia include: biochemical, physiologic, genetic, developmental, psychosocial, and psychiatric phenomena. Potential causes include abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal(1,2) Cluster headache (CH), also known as histamine headache, is a primary neurovascular primary headache disorder, the pathophysiology and etiology of which are not well understood. As the name suggests, CH involves a grouping of headaches, usually over a period of several weeks Penyebab Multiple Sclerosis. Penyebab multiple sclerosis tetap tidak diketahui. Tidak ada bukti pasti bahwa virus atau agen infeksi lainnya adalah satu-satunya penyebab penyakit ini. Meskipun demikian, virus dianggap sebagai faktor etiologi yang paling mungkin untuk penyakit ini, yang dikonfirmasi oleh data epidemiologi dan beberapa sifatnya.

What is the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS)

Glial disease (multiple sclerosis) g. Ocular diseases or imbalance 3. Patofisiologi Reseptor yang berfungsi sebagai penerima informasi untuk sistem vestibular terdiri dari vestibulum, proprioseptik dan mata,serta integrasi dari ketiga reseptor terkait dengan batang otak serta serebelum. Although the incidence and mortality of stroke have been declining since the 1960s, stroke remains the third most common cause of death, after heart disease and cancers. This decline is likely related to reductions in risk factors, mainly cessation of smoking and treatment of hypertension. Because of population increases, especially among the elderly, absolute numbers of strokes and stroke. Multiple sclerosis (MS) adalah suatu penyakit dimana syaraf-syaraf dari sistim syaraf pusat (otak dan sumsum tulang belakang atau spinal cord) memburuk atau degenerasi. Myelin, yang menyediakan suatu penutup atau isolasi untuk syaraf-syaraf, memperbaiki pengantaran (konduksi) dari impuls-impuls sepanjang syaraf-syaraf dan juga adalah penting untuk memelihara kesehatan dari syaraf-syaraf Psoriasis of the skin usually (approximately 80% of the time) appears before arthritic inflammation appears. 831, The 'Best Bet Diet' for Multiple Sclerosis: Can eating certain foods cause multiple sclerosis? is an article from About.com's Guide summarizing Ashton Embry's Best Bet Diet. Specifically any study published by a major medical journal

Multiple sclerosis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

Susi Aulina. TIU : setelah mengikuti proses pembelajaran ini, mahasiswa diharapkan mampu; mengenal gambaran umum penyakit demyelinating. TIK : setelah mengikuti proses pembelajaran ini, mahasiswa diharapkan mampu; menyebutkan secara umum definisi, etiologi, epidemiologi, patologi, diagnosa dan penatalaksanaan : 1. Multiple Sclerosis 2. . Devics Disease Daftar Pustak Multiple Sklerosis adalah suatu penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus yang secara genetis rentan, menyebabkan perubahan pada mekanisme immune didalam susunan saraf pusat (SSP).1Multiple sklerosis termasuk penyakit-penyakit demielinisasi. Di dalam susunan saraf sentral terjadi daerah-daerah yang mengalami demielinisasi. Gejala-gejalanya hilang timbul dalam serangan-serangan dan tiap serangan. Hyperactivation of B and T cells and failure of multiple regulatory networks to interrupt the process can also be slow or fast. Finally, like autoreactive antibodies, some immune complexes are. Daftar penyakit terlengkap disertai dengan definisi, gejala, penyebab, diagnosis, pengobatan, dan pencegahan penyakit, serta tips konsultasi dengan dokter

STRABISMUS

Multiple myeloma (sometimes referred to as myeloma) is a rare type of blood cancer that involves the abnormal growth of plasma cells—a type of white blood cell—that accumulate uncontrollably in the bone marrow. The immune system is impacted due to the inefficiency of the plasma cells to produce healthy antibodies, which fight infection wide spectrum of depression. (10). The etiologi-cal factors of depression in multiple sclerosis are considered to be both biological and psychoso-cial (11). Unfortunately, mental comorbidity and depression in particular are frequently underdia-gnosed and undertreated, with reported rates of missed diagnosis around 23-30% (12) and rate

Irma Manullang: Maret 2013

ASKEP MULTIPLE SKLEROSIS - Blogge

  1. Peritonitis, a painful infection of the lining of your gut, requires immediate medical attention. Peritonitis is a bacterial or fungal infection of the peritoneum, the thin, silk-like membrane.
  2. Multiple sclerosis. Encephalitis. Post-ictal state (Todd's palsy) Management. Management includes treatment of the underlying lesion, management of raised intracranial pressure, and treatment for any other complications (eg, anticonvulsants) and symptomatic treatment (eg, for headaches and for nausea and vomiting)
  3. D and prevention of disease and maintenance of optimal health have appeared in the past 2-3 years,8-21 and several recent conferences have been devoted solely to exploring the role of vi
  4. Optic neuritis is traditionally divided on clinical grounds into typical and atypical forms, with the understanding that typical optic neuritis is generally associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) or is regarded as a demyelinating clinically isolated syndrome at risk of conversion to MS in white populations
  5. MULTIPEL SKLEROSIS PENGERTIAN Multipel Sklerosis (MS) merupakan keadaan inflamasi, demielinisasi dan pembentukan jaringan parut pada selubung myelin yang tidak dapat diduga dalam otak, medulla spinalis dan saraf cranial sehingga terjadi disfungsi neurologi yang luas. ( Esther Chang : 2010 ) Sklerosis Multipel merupakan salah satu gangguan neurologic pada anak muda yang sering ditemukan
  6. Cervical spondylosis is the result of disk degeneration. As disks age, they fragment, lose water, and collapse. Initially, this starts in the nucleus pulposus. This results in the central annular.

Multiple Sclerosis - Etiology And Pathophysiology

  1. ation and electrophysiological testing [], idiopathic CTS being the most common diagnosis in patients with these.
  2. Etiologi Cedera tulang belakang yang paling sering traumatis, disebabkan oleh lateral yang lentur, rotasi dislokasi, pemuatan aksial, dan hyperflexion atau hiperekstensi dari tumor dan multiple sclerosis. Patofisiologi Akibat suatu trauma mengenai tulang belakang, jatuh dari ketinggian, kecelakakan lalu lintas, kecelakakan olah raga.
  3. Smallpox is a disease caused by a poxvirus that is transmitted from person to person that causes high fever, characteristic rash, and may kill about one-third of those infected.Smallpox (also called variola) is the only disease that has been completely wiped out throughout the world

Past history includes frequent sore throats in childhood and 2 bouts of mono. She did well in school, and graduated from college with a degree in art history but has had fatigue, pain, and headaches over the years. She was symptom-free when pregnant and when nursing. Family history is positive for multiple sclerosis in her sister Multiple sclerosis: Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal banding: Uncommon Causes of Status Epilepticus. The uncommon causes of SE deserve consideration. In many cases of drug‐resistant SE, the underlying disorder remains untreated, because rare causes may be overlooked. We do not know the frequency of these rare causes, and the available. Disseminated intravascular coagulation usually results from exposure of tissue factor to blood, initiating the coagulation cascade.In addition, the fibrinolytic pathway is activated in DIC (see figure Fibrinolytic pathway).Stimulation of endothelial cells by cytokines and perturbed microvascular blood flow causes the release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) from endothelial cells

Family Medical Practice | Roxbury, NJ | Hopatcong, NJNeuritis: Que Es Neuritis OpticaRagam Kesehatan: Pengertian Impotensi

Multiple sclerosis. Kondisi ini merupakan gangguan sinyal saraf yang terjadi pada sistem saraf pusat - otak dan tulang belakang - yang diakibatkan oleh kesalahan pada sistem kekebalan tubuh seseorang. Neuroma akustik . Adalah tumor jinak yang tumbuh pada saraf vestibular, yaitu sistem saraf yang menghubungkan telinga dengan otak V & Roo: With a loop ileostomy, your working stoma is sited at a location higher up the small intestine than is an end ileostomy.That is, your stoma is more proximal than is an end ileostomy. This has consequences as to the nature of your output Spinal cord injury occurs when there is any damage to the spinal cord that Multiple sclerosis Inflammation of the spinal cord Arthritis Continued on Next Page. patient's ability to feel sensation at multiple points on the body and also tests motor function. Ideally, it's first given within 72 hours after the initial injury MULTIPLE SCLROSIS. Dr ISKANDAR JAPARDI Fakultas Kedokteran Bagian Bedah Universitas Sumatera Utara. I. Pendahuluan. Multiple sclerosis (MS) pertama kali ditemukan pada tahun 1882 oleh Sir Agustus D'este dari Inggris, akan tetapi Cruveilhier & Charcot memberi gambaran lebih terperinci tentang adanya plak dan sclerosis pada susunan saraf pusat. Insiden penyakit ini di AS 250.000-350.000/tahun.

The Achilles tendon can grow weak and thin with age and lack of use. Then it becomes prone to injury or rupture. Achilles tendon rupture is more common in those with preexisting tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Certain illnesses (such as arthritis and diabetes) and medications (such as corticosteroids and some antibiotics, including quinolones such as levofloxacin [] and ciprofloxacin. A Highly Informative Guide to the Etiology of Diabetes. The etiology of diabetes means the cause or the exact causative factor that leads to the onset of this condition. This HealthHearty article explains the cause of diabetes along with its types Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines from the International Panel on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis . Ann Neurol 2001 ; 50 : 121 - 7 4. Noseworthy JH , Lucchinetti C , Rodriguez M , Weinshenker BG Extensive knowledge base of medical information on symptoms, diagnosis, and misdiagnosis of more than 20,000 medical conditions. Research causes of your symptoms or research treatments for diseases

A review of the etiology of multiple sclerosis

Most conservative treatments for facet syndrome involve postural correction, soft tissue massage and manipulation of the affected areas. Spine-specialized physical therapists and osteopathic clinicians are adept at restoring movement and normal function in restricted and painful facet joints Trichuris trichiura, Trichocephalus trichiuris or whipworm, is a parasitic roundworm (a type of helminth) that causes trichuriasis (a type of helminthiasis which is one of the neglected tropical diseases) when it infects a human large intestine.It is commonly known as the whipworm which refers to the shape of the worm; it looks like a whip with wider handles at the posterior end La Esclerosis Múltiple (E.M.) es una enfermedad del sistema nervioso central que afecta a la capacidad del cerebro para controlar funciones como el habla, la vista, el sistema locomotor, etc. Se denomina múltiple porque afecta de forma dispersa al cerebro y a la médula espinal, y esclerosis porque da lugar a la formación de tejidos endurecidos en las zonas dañadas del sistema nervioso Devi Wuysang. Bagian Neurologi FK Unhas TIU : setelah mengikuti proses pembelajaran ini, mahasiswa diharapkan mampu; mengenal gambaran umum penyakit demyelinating. TIK : setelah mengikuti proses pembelajaran ini, mahasiswa diharapkan mampu; menyebutkan secara umum definisi, etiologi, epidemiologi, patologi, diagnosa : 1. Multiple Sclerosis 2. . Devics Disease Daftar Pus What is cerebral palsy? Cerebral palsy's a term used to describe a wide range of issues that have to do with muscle movements that result from some trauma or injury to the brain during development

Multiple sclerosis; nyeri, lelah, otot tegang, gangguan penglihatan, dan kurangnya koordinasi tubuh merupakan gejala dari multiple sclerosis. Myasthenia gravis ; kelelahan yang semakin parah seiring aktivitas yang dilakukan Los trastornos neurológicos afectan a millones de personas en todo el mundo: informe de la OMS. 27 de febrero de 2007 | Bruselas/Ginebra - Según un nuevo informe de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), los trastornos neurológicos (desde la epilepsia y la enfermedad de Alzheimer o los accidentes cerebrovasculares hasta el dolor de cabeza) afectan en todo el mundo a unos mil millones. Definitions Stroke. A stroke (apoplexy) is the sudden onset of weakness, numbness, paralysis, slurred speech, aphasia, problems with vision and other manifestations of a sudden interruption of blood flow to a particular area of the brain.The ischemic area involved determines the type of focal deficit that is seen in the patient. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA Etiologi Sampaisaat ini, penyebab dari ALS masih belum diketahui, tetapi para peneliti sedang mempelajari beberapa kemungkinan penyebab dari ALS antara lain: Gangguan neurologi seperti multiple sclerosis, post polio syndrome, multifocal motor neuropati, dan atropi otot

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